Wednesday, March 31, 2021

FRED, The Bleeding Heart

Bleeding Heart by Peg Riccio


Last fall, a friend gave me the root of her bleeding heart plant she called Fred. Unfortunately it was some time before I could get the root from her that by the time I did, it was very dry and hard. I soaked it in a tub of water for a day before I planted it. It was so desiccated, I did not think it would make it through the winter. But this spring I was pleasantly surprised by a tuft of foliage peeking through the soil. Fred is alive! Since March, Fred has produced beautiful fern-like leaves and nodding racemes of pendulous blossoms. Each blossom looks like an earring or a puffy locket on a chain and is actually comprised of two outer rose-colored petals and the two inner white petals. If you turn the flower upside down and pull the rose petals apart you will see the lady in a bath. Lady-in-a-bath is another moniker for bleeding heart.

Bleeding heart is an herbaceous perennial that prefers a woodsy environment with moist soil that is high in organic matter. Some shade is best, can be morning sun and afternoon shade or dappled light. With such delicate foliage, you would think that rabbits would decimate bleeding hearts but both rabbits and deer do not seem interested in this perennial. However, by June the leaves do get yellow and ratty and eventually the plant goes dormant as summer’s heat arrives. In order to prevent a gap in the garden, other herbaceous perennials such as hardy geraniums or hostas can grow to fill in the gap during the summer or annuals can be planted in its place.


Saturday, November 21, 2020

Growing Ginger for Gingerbread Cookies

by Peg Riccio, NCA Blog Editor
November 21, 2020

gingerbread menWhen we think of gingerbread, we think of breads, cakes, and little edible men. But what is gingerbread really? Where does the “ginger” come from? Is this something we can grow here in the DC metro area? To celebrate National Gingerbread Cookie Day today, let’s explore ginger the spice plant.

The term “gingerbread” is from Latin “zingiber” via Old French “gingebras,” referring to preserved ginger. The term “zingiber” is derived from Greek “zingiberis” which comes from the Sanskrit name of the spice “singabera.”

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is an herbaceous perennial plant native to southeastern Asia. The plant can grow up to 4 feet tall and has sharp, thin leaves. The plant is grown for its roots which are really modified stems called rhizomes. You may have seen these knobby rhizomes in grocery stores in the produce section.

Ginger was first cultivated in China and spread to Europe via the Silk Road. In medieval England, gingerbread meant preserved ginger and was not applied to desserts until the 15th century. Ginger was the most common spice in medieval Europe, after pepper.

Making gingerbread cookies in the shape of people is credited to Queen Elizabeth I who had them made to resemble and to serve to visiting foreign dignitaries. These became so popular that baking gingerbread cookies in the shapes of people and animals became a staple at European medieval fairs. Over time, the festivals came to be known as Gingerbread Fairs and the cookies were called fairings.

From gingerbread figures it was inevitable that the next step would be to build gingerbread houses. Gingerbread houses originated in Germany in the 16th century and are just large, rectangular-shaped cookies “glued” together with frosting. These are highly decorated with sweets and became associated with Christmas tradition. As German immigrants settled in America the tradition continued particularly with the Pennsylvania Germans.

gingerbread house

 

In the United States, the first known recipes for gingerbread are in the American Cookery by Amelia Simmons (1796). These were in loaf form because molasses, which was less expensive than sugar, produced a softer cake or loaf. George Washington’s mother, Mary Ball Washington, served her recipe for gingerbread to the Marquis de Lafayette when he visited her in Fredericksburg, Virginia. During the American revolutionary war, soldiers received ginger in their food rations.

Gingerbread now refers to baked goods made with ginger and other spices such as cloves, nutmeg, and cinnamon and sweetened with honey, sugar, or molasses. Gingerbread can be a loaf, cake, cookie (soft), or biscuit (hard like ginger snaps or gingerbread men).

Although you can buy ginger rhizomes and ground ginger at the store, you can also grow ginger. It takes about 8 months for the plant to develop the rhizomes for harvest so in the DC metro area, one has to begin indoors in the early spring.

Adria Bordas, horticulture extension agent with the Fairfax County Virginia Cooperative Extension Office, recently posted her experiences on Facebook. She bought three ginger rhizomes from a grocery store in March and harvested 5 pounds of ginger in November.

“Ginger does better if you soak the rhizomes in water before you plant them. This method re-hydrates them and removes any chemicals that prohibit sprouting,” she said. After soaking overnight, Adria planted her rhizomes in a small container with a light potting mix called pro-mix.

rhizomes

The three original rhizomes Adria purchased from the store. Photo courtesy of Adria Bordas

.“Plant so the rhizomes are vertical, not flat, so sprouts shoot up. It can take 2 weeks before you see sprouts so don’t get discouraged.” Adria planted hers about 2 inches deep. Because she had a skylight in her living room, she was able to position the container to receive enough light and warmth. In May, she re-planted them outside in a 20-inch container with pro-mix and a little bit of compost.

“They do better in part shade than full sun,” she said. “The only amendment I added was Bumper Crop in the summer.”

ginger plant

Adria’s ginger plant outside in the summer. Photo courtesy of Adria Bordas.

From her three rhizomes, Adria harvested 5 pounds of fresh ginger in November. Already she has made gingerbread with fresh grated ginger and banana bread with ginger. She is thinking of making a ginger syrup and highly recommends chicken, garlic, and ginger on the grill. “I just use a cheese grater or a kitchen plane to shred the ginger but I have found that if I freeze them first and then grate, it is much easier.”

Ginger can be stored in a dry, cool location as is or it can be frozen, either whole, peeled and sliced, or as a paste. Fresh, unpeeled ginger can be stored in the fridge for up to 3 weeks. Ginger can also be dried and powdered.

After hearing about Adria’s experience, I have been inspired to start growing ginger in March indoors. I will just buy a few rhizomes at the local grocery store and hopefully, this time next year, I will have fresh ginger to make gingerbread cookies for National Gingerbread Cookie Day in November 2021.

ginger

Five pounds of fresh ginger harvested in November. Photo courtesy of Adria

Monday, October 5, 2020

Pretty Poisonous Pokeweed

Pretty Poisonous Pokeweed

by Peg Ricco, Pegplant.com Member of Camelot GC, District III

mature pokeweed berries

A common sight in Virginia now are the purple berries hanging from green shrubs along the roadside. Pokeweed (Phytolacca decandra) is an herbaceous perennial, considered a weed by most gardeners. Pokeweed is easy to find on roadsides, fields, and ditches as birds eat the berries and drop the seeds. From summer to fall, pokeweed blooms small white flowers on peduncles (stems) making them stick out. In the fall, the berries appear first as flatten green balls with a dimple in the center on hot pink racemes and later, as if they had been inflated, as deep purple, ¼ -inch balls on red racemes. The contrast of purple and red or green and pink is so pretty that pokeweed is often used for fall floral arrangements.

immature pokeweed berries

Pokeweed berries are attractive but it is important to know that all parts of the plant are poisonous. Some people even get rashes from touching the plant. If you have children or see pokeweed in areas where children frequent such as school playgrounds, you should remove the plants. Pull the thick stems after a rain when the soil is loose and when the plants are young. If they mature, they develop taproots, making them difficult to remove completely. If you are not worried about children, consider growing them as a native food source for birds in your garden.

white pokeweed flowers with both green immature and purple mature berries in background


Thursday, July 16, 2020

Culinary Herb Recipes To Try This Summer

Peg Riccio, Camelot Garden Club, District III  pegplant.com

parsleyThis summer, as you cut and harvest your culinary herbs from your garden, try using them in a variety of basic recipes. Here are a few simple recipes — the herb you use depends on the flavor you want so try experimenting. For easy reference, print this article and tape it on the inside of your kitchen cabinet along with the list of herbs you are growing.



     

tarragon is often used in herb vinegars









Herbal Vinegar

Wash one cup of herbs, allow to air dry. Pack leaves (can use stems too) in quart glass jar with wooden spoon. Fill with 3 to 3 ½ cups vinegar to one inch from top. The vinegar should be 5% acidity and best types of vinegar are white or red wine vinegar, rice wine vinegar, or apple cider vinegar. Push down with spoon and bruise leaves. If a metal lid, first cover with plastic wrap, if plastic lid, just close. Store in dark place for 4 to 6 week, shaking every few days. Taste to see if too strong, add more vinegar, or too weak, add more herb. When done, strain leaves out and pour liquid into clean bottles and add a sprig of fresh herb for decoration. Label.

Butter

Wash herbs, let dry. Take a stick of unsalted butter out of the fridge, put in bowl, and let come to room temperature so is soft. Add 2 to 3 tablespoons of the chopped herb, do this to taste. Depending on the leaf, may have to cut into small pieces. Can put in a container to keep in fridge for 2 weeks or roll into saran wrap like a log and freeze for up to 6 months.

Syrup

Put one cup of water and one cup of sugar in a small saucepan. Bring to a simmer. When sugar dissolves, turn off heat, add large handful of herb leaves. Bruise with wooden spoon by smashing against side of pot. Cover and let sit for 30 minutes. When cool, strain leaves out and pour syrup in glass jar and store in fridge for up to 2 weeks.

mint has a variety of uses in the kitchen including sweet syrups

Pesto

Pulverize in the blender 2 cups washed fresh basil, 4 cloves of garlic, (chopped), and ½ cup olive oil until pasty. Add 3/4 cup grated Parmesan cheese, blend again. Can freeze in plastic ice cube trays or flat in plastic bags.

Marinade for meat

Depending on the amount of meat can change the quantities but the ratio is 1/4 cup of olive oil, 1 tablespoon of vinegar like a wine vinegar, ¼ cup water, a dash of salt (like soy sauce), a dash of sugar (honey or brown sugar) and about a cup of fresh herb leaves (tear leaves apart if large). Have meat sit in this mixture for at least 30 minutes. Drain and cook meat.

Herb paste


If you don’t need pesto, make basil paste to preserve
Can use this as a frozen base for pesto and then add the fresh garlic and Parmesan cheese to the thawed paste or a frozen base for stew or soup. Clean herbs but make sure are completely dry as water and oil do not mix. Blend in the food processor 4 cups of herb leaves to ¼ to 1/3 cup extra virgin olive oil to make a paste. Freeze in bags or plastic ice cube trays. There should be some texture to herb so is a paste and not pureed like liquid. Good with savory herbs such as basil, parsley, and cilantro. If using a “sweet” herb like mints, may want to try sunflower seed oil instead.

Monday, June 22, 2020

National Pollinator Week


By Peg Ricco,  PegPlant.com

 This week, Celebrate National Pollinator Week 

It's the perfect time to learn more about pollinators, identifying the best plants and trees for pollinators in your area, and incorporating best practices to protect, harbor, and feed pollinators. 

It is amazing that something as small as a bee is vitally important to our food supply. As pollinators, bees transfer pollen thus ensuring that plants and crops develop fruit and seeds for us to consume. But bees are not the only keystone species that we depend on, we also need other pollinators such as butterflies, moths, beetles, flies, and birds, including hummingbirds. 

About 80 percent of the world’s flowering plants depend on pollinators (the others are wind pollinated). According to Cornell University, pollinators are responsible for every third bite of food we eat. Unfortunately, pollinator populations have declined due to pesticides, habitat loss, and disease. Gardeners who are aware of this problem have deliberately planted flowering perennials and annuals to provide pollen (protein) and nectar (carbs). Because of their dramatic 90 percent decline in population over the past 20 years, monarch butterflies have received quite a lot of support. Many gardeners are planting milkweed – the one and only plant for monarchs — or trying to produce more butterflies with home kits. Bees too have received national attention. Nurseries promote bee friendly flowers and gardeners have planted bee magnets such as Joe-pye weed (Eupatorium), goldenrod (Solidago), and gayfeather (Liatris).


 

Persimmon fruit, thanks to pollinators

These efforts have helped the pollinators and certainly gardeners have come to appreciate the importance of pollinators. However, an overlooked source of food and protection for pollinators are trees. Trees provide more flowers, plenty of foliage for larva (caterpillars), and a large infrastructure to hold hives and nests. Because of the number of flowers a canopy provides, trees can provide more pollen and nectar compared to annuals and perennials. Plus, as homeowners move from house to house, the herbaceous landscape may change but usually the trees and all of their tiny inhabitants remain.

Plant Small Native Trees for Homes                                                                                            “Trees are a permanent fixture,” said Steve Nagy, an International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) Board-Certified Master Arborist and Assistant District Manager at the northern Virginia office of the Davey Tree Expert Company. Based in Ohio, the company was founded in 1880 and has offices across North America.  For attracting pollinators in the Washington DC metro area, Steve recommends native trees that thrive in our particular climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers). “We recommend native trees because the chances of them growing well is higher that non-natives,” he explained. For typical suburban lots where space is a premium, Steve recommends swamp white oak (Quercis bicolor), willow oak (Quercis phellos), post oak (Quercis stellata), cucumber magnolia (Magnolia acuminata), sweet bay magnolia (Magnolia virginiana), black gum (Nyssa sylvatica), little leaf linden (Tilia cordata), persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), and serviceberry (Amelanchier). “Sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) is a great tree, too,” said Steve, “It is a typically overlooked native with good fall color.”

The crape myrtle branches bend down


Plant Trees that Flower at Various Times
 with summer-blooming flowers. While a tree can provide many flowers, usually it only flowers for a few weeks. Because different pollinators are active at various times of the year, Steve recommends planting trees with various bloom times. Instead of planting the well-known spring bloomers such as flowering cherry trees, flowering plums, star magnolias, saucer magnolias, and redbuds, homeowners can plant summer blooming trees such as little leaf linden, persimmon, cucumber magnolia, southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), and crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia).                                                                                                 

Plant Trees that Support Specific Pollinators. 

Another reason to plant trees is that certain pollinators require specific tree species or genera. Similar to the monarch butterfly’s relationship with milkweed, the spicebush swallowtail caterpillar only feeds on spicebush (Lindera benzoin) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum). The zebra swallowtail caterpillar only feeds on young paw paw leaves (Asimina spp.) and the pink-striped oak worm moth gets its name from its preference for oaks (Quercus spp.).


Paw paw trees are vital to the zebra swallowtail butterfly


                

              


Monday, April 27, 2020

Baptisia Plants Perform Well in the DC Metro Area

by Peg Riccio, Pegplant.com

Baptisia 'Lemon Meringue' flowers up close
Baptisia, also called false indigo, is a shrub-like plant that does well in our hot and humid summers. Recent breeding efforts have expanded the range of flower colors creating a new look for an old favorite. I myself have been taken by two top performers according to Mt. Cuba Center’s 15-page report, Baptisia for the Mid-Atlantic Region. The Mt. Cuba Center’s Trial Garden, managed by George Coombs, research horticulturist, evaluates native plants and their related cultivars. From 2012 to 2015, staff evaluated 46 selections of Baptisia including representatives from 11 different species to determine which performs best in the mid-Atlantic region. Over 60 percent of the plants tested receive 4 or 5 stars. Among those, 10 superior cultivars outperformed the rest. Fortunately for me my two Baptisia cultivars are included in the ten.

Dutch Chocolate and Lemon Meringue
I have two Lemon Meringue and two Dutch Chocolate plants. I purchase them several years ago as small plants. Now in April, they are tall and just about to bloom. In the summer, they will be loaded with yellow or chocolate brown flowers. Although they look like shrubs, these plants are herbaceous perennials. I cut them back in the winter and in March, new growth emerges from the base. By summer, the plants grow to their mature height of about 3 feet high and wide, each year. The plants have pea-like flowers on tall spikes, similar to lupines, which emerge in April and are in full flower in May. In the fall, the dark brown pods can be left on the plant or used for dried flower arrangements. Baptisia plants are deer resistant, heat and humidity tolerant, and drought tolerant once established.

Wednesday, April 15, 2020

Now That You Have Seeds, Order Bulbs for Summer Blooms!

Many gardeners focus on obtaining seed in the spring to start their garden. Now that summer is around the corner, don’t forget to add summer-blooming bulbs such as alliums, cannas, crinums, dahlias, lilies, gladiolus, and iris to your garden. For interesting foliage, try caladiums, colocasias, and alocasias. Below is a short list of companies that sell bulbs in alphabetical order. For more,  you can always google to see who carries your favorite or, see more companies on pegplant.com. Even Costco, faithfully carries great summer bulbs every spring (price is hard to beat), so if you are already food shopping there, check out their garden offerings also. PS you can't beat their containers, many made of recycled materials, for under $30.
Amaryllis and Caladium Bulb Company, Florida, has catalog and can order online. Sells amaryllis, caladiums, and spring and summer bulbs.
Brecks, Ohio, has a catalog and can order online, states that it ships bulbs directly from Holland
Brent and Becky’s Bulbs, Virginia, has a catalog, can order online, can visit display garden and shop in Gloucester, VA.
Dutch Grown, Pennsylvania, order bulbs online.
Easy to Grow Bulbs, California, can order online, no catalog. Sells bulbs, succulents, and houseplants.
John Scheepers Beauty from Bulbs, Connecticut, can order online and has catalog. Also has sister company Van Engelen for wholesale bulb orders and a sister company, Kitchen Garden Seeds, for vegetable, herb, flower seeds
Longfield Gardens, New Jersey, can order online but no catalog, sells bulbs and perennials
McClure and Zimmerman, Wisconsin, has a digital catalog and can order online, sells bulbs
Odyssey Bulbs, Massachusetts, online, no catalog, sells unusual bulbs and perennials
Old House Gardens, Michigan, can order online and has a print catalog, known for heirloom bulbs
RoozenGaarde and Washington Bulb Company, Washington, has a mailorder and internet division called Tulips.com. There is a retail gift shop in WA. Also ships flowers and promotes bulbs as wedding favors.
Telos Rare Bulbs, California, sells bulbs from South Africa, South America, and western U.S., online, no catalog
White Flower Farm, Connecticut, can order online and obtain catalog, wide range of bulbs, perennials, holiday plants, and gardening tools. Has display gardens and store in CT.